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The Center for Transformative Teaching Posts

Featured Post

Little Nudges

It won’t be long before Spring Quarter is over, final exams graded, and some of us head off to a relaxing summer break. When you begin your planning for your courses for either summer or fall quarter, whether they are online or hybrid, or perhaps even face-to-face, think about how to help struggling students. Have you ever considered how you might “humanize yourself” in your classes, demonstrating to students that you are supportive, without adding to your workload? Here’s an intervention that could prove to improve student retention and possible improve their performance in your course.

The EvoLLLution | Small Changes, Large Rewards: How Individualized Emails Increase Classroom Performance
By identifying struggling students and sending them personalized emails encouraging action and providing support, educators can make a significant difference to the success of their learners.

I recently read an article on the Evolllution website (yes, that’s how they spell it) called Small Changes, Large Rewards in which the author, Zoe Cohen, Assistant Professor in the College of Medicine Tucson, University of Arizona, says “By identifying struggling students and sending them personalized emails encouraging action and providing support, educators can make a significant difference to the success of their learners.”

Cohen provides sample emails. In one of the samples, she connects with students who have failed the first exam: “I was looking at the exam #1 scores for (Course name) and saw that you didn’t do as well as expected. Since it’s still early in the (semester/quarter), now is the time to try and figure out what went wrong and how we can fix it. I have some quick questions for you that I’m hoping you’ll be willing to answer for me.” In this email she lists some questions that ask students to reflect on things like class participation and exam preparation. After sending this email for the first time she worried that there would be a “backlash” from students, blaming her instead of taking responsibility for their behavior. Instead, she got some amazing responses from students, thanking her for taking the time to care about them! And not only that, there has been an improvement in student average grades.

Read more about Dr. Cohen’s experience, and think about how you might nudge students to move them towards success in your course. What are some other ways that you can humanize yourself in your courses to help students? How do you do this in an online environment?

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Featured Post

Quick Tip #1

Quick Tip #1 Ask your students: Why are we doing this?

Over the next several weeks I’ll be adding short Quick Tip blog posts on a variety of topics. Here’s #1:

You’ve probably seen references to TILT (Transparency in Teaching and Learning), the process of making some small changes to an assignment to make it more transparent to students by adding the Purpose, the Task, and the Criteria. In the Teaching Newsletter (Feb 28, 2019) from the Chronicle of Higher Education, several faculty responded to the article How One Professor Made Her Assignments More Relevant. Here are their comments:

At the start of the semester, Crystal Peirce, an instructor in the biology department at Harper College, polled her students in a course for non-majors, asking what career skills they expected to need, with options like “data interpretation” and “working as a team.” With that foundation in place, she writes, “I continue to remind students of these skills as we complete activities and assignments.”

Julia Kregenow, an associate teaching professor in astronomy and astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University, also takes a direct approach with the non-majors she teaches. “My trick,” she writes, “is to ask the students point blank: ‘Why are we doing this? When might you use this skill in everyday life?’ Having the students come up with the relevance themselves is particularly powerful; it can’t go in one ear and out the other if they have to come up with it themselves.”
Scott Cowley, an assistant professor of marketing in the business school at Western Michigan University, came at the issue a little differently. He teaches “Advanced Digital Marketing Strategies,” which he describes as “very applied, skill- and résumé-building course.” But when former students asked Cowley to review their résumés, he learned that they hadn’t included anything from the course. So he began showing, near the end of the term, a slide of what students could reasonably add to their résumés. And he thinks he got through to them. “Many pulled out their phones and began taking pictures” of the slide, he writes. That, he adds, had not happened before.

How are you making your course relevant for students? What life skills, things that they will need 5 years later, will they take away?

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I love butterflies. Over the summer I watch butterflies in my garden, and am delighted when they flutter around, landing for just a moment on a flower before heading off to search for more nectar.

The kind of butterflies I DON’T like are those I get on the first day of class. Walking into a classroom (virtual or otherwise) with a group of new students, wondering what kind of impression I’ll make has always made me a bit nervous. When I share this with students, they can hardly believe it – What? they say…but you’re the expert! You’ve been teaching a long time! Why do you still get butterflies on the first day??

Delaney J. Kirk, Ph.D. from University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee (and who has 27+ years teaching experience!) still gets a little nervous at the beginning of a class. In an article she wrote for the Faculty Focus blog, she outlined 10 tips for getting ready for that first day:

Develop your own routine before going to class. Take a short brisk walk beforehand. Twirl your wrists to gently shake the stress out of your arms. Relax your shoulders; people tend to “hunch up” their shoulders when tense. Do some deep breathing.
Check out your classroom before the students get there
. Walk around and get familiar with the room, podium, how the seats are arranged, etc. Make sure you know how to work any technology you’ll be using.
The first few minutes are crucial. Your students are curious about you and the course. Everything (how you dress, walk, present yourself) are clues as to your personality and credibility. Walk briskly and with purpose into the classroom.
Chat briefly with the students as they come into the room
to make yourself (and the students) feel more comfortable.
Act confident and enthusiastic about what you will be doing that first day. Don’t say that you are nervous as this makes the students uncomfortable and you will lose credibility with them.
Also, it’s best not to tell your students that this is the first time (if it is) that you have taught this particular course. You should know more about the topic than they do so they’ll assume you’re an expert.
Use notecards or form to gather information about your students (name, email address, past class experience with the topic, work experience, etc). This takes the focus off you and onto the task which gives you time to get comfortable.
As you begin, make eye contact with two or three people in various parts of the room. Learn their names and use them several times. You are essentially beginning to build a relationship with your students.
Be enthusiastic about being in the classroom so that they will be also. Don’t just stand behind the podium but move around and move toward them. Look happy to be sharing your knowledge with them.
Start with something that is easy for you to talk about. Tell a story you’ve told often before, read something that is relevant to the class from the newspaper, share something from your days as a student or talk to them about why you went into teaching.

Are there some other ways that you prepare for the first day (April 5!)? What do you do to help with that nervous feeling on Day 1 of the course?

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Featured Post

Airport Ideas

Have you ever heard of airport ideas?

According to Harvard Professor Dan Levy (no, not the actor), an airport idea is something from his statistics class that he wants students, five years from now, to be able to discuss when they see each other at the airport (remember when we saw colleagues and even students at airports? When travel for work was a thing?)

This reminds me of a question we asked a few years ago when departments were creating their program maps and looking at classes faculty in those departments and programs felt were critical to a student’s understanding of their discipline. We asked, “What do you want your students to be able to do know and know not just next quarter, but next year, and even five years from now?” How to we ensure that students are learning and understanding

That leads me to another important concept – essential questions. In a post on TeachThought, Terry Heick writes, “Essential questions are, as Grant Wiggins defined, ‘essential’ in the sense of signaling genuine, important and necessarily-ongoing inquiries. These are grapple-worthy, substantive questions that not only require wrestling with, but are worth wrestling with–that could lead students to some critical insight in a 40/40/40-rule sense of the term.” This 40-40-40 rule asks, “what’s important that students understand for the next 40 days, what’s important that they understand for the next 40 months, and what’s important that they understand for the next 40 years?

When I was teaching statistics, I used essential questions to pull a thread through the class, Sometimes it was about something topical, like the 2020 Census, or polls in a presidential or even off-cycle elections.

Here are some examples of Essential Questions created by Terry Heick:

Language & Literature

  1. How is our understanding of culture and society constructed through and by language?
  2. How can language be powerful?
  3. How can you use language to empower yourself?
  4. How is language used to manipulate us?
  5. In what ways are language and power inseparable?
  6. What is the relationship between thinking and language? How close or far are they apart?
  7. How does language influence the way we think, act, and perceive the world?
  8. How do authors use the resources of language to impact an audience?
  9. How is literature like life?
  10. What is literature supposed to do?

Some overarching essential questions for math, from McTighe, Jay and Wiggins. Grant Essential Questions: Doorways to Student Understanding

  1. How is mathematics used to quantify and compare situations,
    events and phenomena?
  2. What are the mathematical attributes of objects or processes and
    how are they measured or calculated?
  3. How are spatial relationships, including shape and dimension,
    used to draw, construct, model and represent real situations or
    solve problems?
  4. How is mathematics used to measure, model and calculate
  5. What are the patterns in the information we collect and how are
    they useful?

This comes from The Second Principle by Leslie Owen Wilson who identifies essential questions as a key part of the instructional design process:

If you want to determine whether the questions you write fit into this framework, check out Dr. Wilson’s checklist:

I hope you give some thought to this idea – perhaps make it clear in your syllabus that this is what you hope students will be able to answer by the end of the quarter, and lead them through this investigation, bit by bit, each week. And maybe we’ll one day soon see our students at the airport.

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Pushing Boundaries in Canvas #1

Occasionally we get questions from instructors wanting to do things that Canvas is ill-equipped to handle. This series celebrates that spirit of innovation and provides the best answers we can come up with to approximate the desired effect.

Quiz Feedback on randomized questions

Creating a practice quiz before a big exam that automatically provides immediate feedback* can be an effective formative assessment that is convenient for both student and instructor. One instructor had a brilliant idea to repurpose last quarter’s exams as practice quizzes. There were just a few complications: there was a mix of essay questions and auto-graded questions, the questions were randomized, and the instructor didn’t want to have to grade any of the questions manually. The desired result was that the student would take the practice exam with randomized questions and then get the answers and explanations in the feedback for each question. Unfortunately, Canvas quizzes don’t provide feedback text for ungraded questions, so students would be unable to compare their essay responses to the exemplars unless the instructor graded each question individually, even if it was simply to assign a 0 out of 0 possible.

Here are some of the solutions we came up with, none of which quite satisfied the instructor, but they may inspire you to try something:

  • Set the quiz to show “one question at a time” without backtracking. The next item will be a text only “question” with the exemplar answer. When the students go back to review the quiz, they can compare their answer to the example. These can be mixed in with auto-graded questions with feedback comments as long the quiz is set to allow students to see their responses and the correct answers. This option requires the questions to be in a set order and not randomized.
  • Keep the quiz randomized and add a number key to each essay question so they can look up the answer and feedback on an answer key that is only accessible once they have submitted the quiz.  This can be done by setting up requirements in the module where the quiz resides. Auto-graded questions can still provide feedback within the quiz results.
  • Separate the practice quiz into two quizzes: one with randomized auto-graded questions and one with essay questions in a set order with an answer key released after it is submitted.

*Those are instructions for New Quizzes. For feedback on Classic Quizzes, see the instructions for individual question types. Here’s a useful resource for deciphering the answer and feedback settings in New Quizzes.

If you have a better solution that meets all of the conditions, we would love to hear it. You can post your answer in the comments or send them to But your situation might not be as complicated, so one of these solutions, or something similar, might work just fine for you. Also, if you think Canvas can work better for instructors and students with a bit of a teak, you are always welcome to suggest something. That’s how Canvas evolves.

And if you can’t get Canvas to do something that you think it should, and you want to brainstorm options, don’t hesitate to contact us. That’s why we’re here.

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Featured Post

Canvas Quirks #1

Is Canvas not behaving like you think it should? Is there an obnoxious feature that you can’t seem to turn off or change the settings for? You may have discovered a Canvas Quirk – a persistent feature of Canvas that gets under our skins or foils some of our best design ideas. We’ll be collecting examples of these and publishing them in this occasional column, along with workarounds or thoughts about how to turn what seem like bugs into features.

Future entries might be more elaborate, but here are three quick ones to get us started:

What’s the quirk?

Instructors can’t use the same Zoom link for meetings happening at alternating times within the week for the same material to accommodate students, like a Tuesday morning session and a Thursday afternoon session. Canvas creates a unique link each time you create a new Zoom meeting and is unable to create recurring sessions using multiple times.

What is Canvas thinking? 

This is a security feature. Creating a unique Zoom link address for each session reduces the possibility of students sharing a recurring link that might be picked up by a Zoombomber. It also reduces the risk of FERPA violations. For this same reason, Canvas does not give you the option to use your personal room ID for recurring sessions.

What’s the workaround? 

See option 2 below. 

What’s the quirk? 

Recurring Zoom meetings crowding the ToDo list and overwhelming students. Instructors are unable to turn off the ToDo list or adjust any ToDo-related settings, unlike the Announcements at the top of the Home Page.

What is Canvas thinking? 

Canvas seems to have 3 operating principles here:

  • The ToDo list will show everything due within the next 7 days
  • The ToDo list would like at least 6 items and will reach further than a week to get them.
  • If there is only one type of event, like a recurring Zoom meeting, it will show all of them – even if that is 20 items.

What’s the workaround? 

  1. If you started by setting up your Zoom meetings, adding other items with due dates in that week, such as discussions, assignments, and quizzes, should trigger the first two principles, reducing your list to less overwhelming 6 items or however many items are due that week. You can even add pages to your ToDo list if you want to remind students to do readings by a certain date. 
  2. However, if a recurring Zoom meeting is the only thing you are assigning to students on Canvas, you can create a single meeting and then use the generated link as your recurring meeting. You can publish a link to it prominently on your home page along with your Zoom session schedule or on a special Zoom session page with additional login, help, and troubleshooting information. The Zoom link does not expire after the official date of the meeting. If you still want individual meetings on your ToDo list, you can also add calendar events every week and include the Zoom link in the event description. You might think to simplify this workaround by using your personal meeting link for all course meetings, but this could create potential FERPA violations or Zoombombing if students from different sections or previous classes figured out the link remained constant, so it isn’t recommended.

What’s the quirk?

There is a practical limit to how long answers to matching questions can be in Canvas Quizzes. Long answers will simply run off the screen so that only part of the answer is visible, and a smaller part for a smaller screen. The answers don’t wrap.

What is Canvas thinking? 

Text wrapping the answers would be confusing because the answers can’t be formatted with bullets to separate multiple line answers. The answers are highlighted as the student scrolls through them, but even that might be confusing.

What’s the workaround? 

The right side of a matching question won’t wrap, but the left side will, so always put your (longer) description or example on the left and the (shorter) matching term on the right when creating matching questions. In this case, the answers on the left would fit nicely in the dropdown answer menu. This will even work if you have multiple examples of the same term or concept and you want students to use some of the same answers for multiple prompts or questions.

If you want a bit more flexibility when creating quiz questions, I also like the multiple dropdown question. It can do more than just short answers.

I hope you found these useful. If you have discovered a Canvas Quirk or have a better workaround than the ones suggested here, please send them to and let us know if we can give you credit.

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Don’t’ let technology betray you! eLearning can help

Technology can transform our work!

Today’s guest contributor is Hannah Lovett. Hannah is the Program Specialist in eLearning who I like to call our “Canvas Guru.” Hannah has helped so many of us with Canvas questions, and is always so gracious and generous with her time. Thanks Hannah!

Reach out to eLearning with your questions! We are here to support you.

We have all had those moments where technology seemingly betrays us or maybe we mistakenly do the damage ourselves. There is a myriad of reasons for reaching out to the eLearning team, here are some ways to get the best, quickest assistance possible:

Include as much information as possible. This will eliminate some of the back and forth information gathering needed for us to look into your conundrum or query. Include the name of the course(s), names of the students/faculty/staff involved or experiencing the issue, the name of the affected assignment/quiz/discussion, etc. Examples give us something to look into and prevent us from having to sift through the entire courses and user logs. If you can, screencasts and screenshots help us tremendously.

Email us. Even when we are on campus, email is the quickest way to get in touch with eLearning as a student, faculty or staff member. This allows us to assist you on the go and prevents a traffic jam of phone calls and walk-in (even though we love seeing you!). It also allows us to look into the issue or question before responding.

Use the digital forms. For some of the tasks that must be completed every quarter we have digital forms that you can use to request that an eLearning staff member completes them for you. We have forms for merging, blueprint courses, adding and removing people from your courses, as well as for requesting that new software be integrated into Canvas. This helps us gather all the necessary information and keep track of the many requests that we receive in a day so we can complete them as quickly as possible. eLearning Forms can be found by searching eLearning Information for Faculty and Staff.

Maintain your browser. So many of the issues we hear about can be resolved by simply keeping your browser up to date and clearing your browser’s cache and cookies regularly. If Canvas looks wrong, it might be your browser. Switching browsers to see if the issue persists may give you and us some clues to solving the problem that you are encountering.

Surf the web. In a hurry? Often doing a web search of your question or issue will bring you to pages in the Canvas Community and Guides with the answers. Did you know there is also a page where you can check if Canvas is down? Check out the Status Page.

We are here to support and assist you! Don’t hesitate to reach out to eLearning.

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Welcome to the New Year and the New Quarter!

Welcome to the New Year and the New Quarter. We’re so glad to see you! And we’re glad to be able to put 2020 behind us. The CTT blog is back with new contributors and new topic.

Happy New Year!

But let’s do a review of the past year first.

I was recently reading The Teaching Newsletter from the Chronicle of Higher Education. Becky Supiano, the author, began with, “Last spring’s shift to remote instruction was a remarkable moment in higher education. At the time, I marveled at the strangeness of talking with professors across the country — and even in other countries — and hearing the same experiences and emotions over and over. Neither instructors nor students were ready for online learning. They missed being on campus and in the classroom. Everyone was wrapping their minds around the reality of the pandemic.” You can read the entire newsletter HERE.

The CTT and eLearning rallied to provide multiple professional development opportunities to help faculty with the transition. We hoped that faculty who had never taught an online class would have sufficient tools to make this quick pivot, and those who had experience with online teaching would be able to spend time improving their classes, and that everyone would be comfortable using Zoom or Google Meet to make connections with their students, critical in the online and remote environment.

Faculty were most certainly engaged in their online coursework, and focusing on “getting it right,” but we didn’t always take into consideration that this was a big shift for students as well. In her article, Supiano reports on some things she learned from student interviews:

  • A well-designed online course can be a big adjustment
  • Some classes are barely happening
  • Many students are comfortable talking about their mental health. But that doesn’t mean they’ll tell instructors they’re struggling.

What are students at EvCC telling us?

In a survey conducted by eLearning during the summer of 2020 we asked students, “what is most critical to your success?” Their top responses included:

  • That you can easily navigate your online course (organization is clear, expectations are transparent)
  • That assignment instructions and grading criteria are clear and seem fair
  • That you feel like your instructor cares about you and your success
  • That you know where to go to ask for help
  • That the course content connects to your goals and life experiences

When we asked whether students felt they received clear and consistent feedback on coursework in either the spring or summer classes, they responded:

  • 49.2% felt their received clear and consistent feedback
  • 42.4% felt that in some classes they received clear feedback, and others they didn’t
  • 8.4% felt they did not receive clear and consistent feedback

What are some things we can do to improve those numbers? How do we move from a deficit mindset to building capacity? Not just our own capacity, but that of students as well. Can we reveal the hidden curriculum the hidden curriculum that “consists of the unspoken or implicit academic, social, and cultural messages that are communicated to students while they are in school” and help students develop a sense of belonging?

We will be sharing more information in this CTT Blog about how to address some of the challenges facing students. For now, you can learn more about Student Well-being by listening to this Podcast from Inside Higher Ed called “The Key.” Earlier episodes are also available on this site.

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Annotate Videos for Use in Your Courses

In the world of online, blended, hybrid, and “flipped” courses, video is one of the things that separates an average learning experience from an exceptional one. Unfortunately, the majority of videos–70%? 80%? quite possibly more, based on personal observations over the past several years–in these types of courses follow the same general model: a narrated slide presentation or screencast, sometimes a recording of a live lecture or webinar-style presentation. Video, in these cases, is really just a substitute for conducting an in-person lecture. And, like it or not, that isn’t something most students  consider particularly exciting.

But course videos don’t have to be warmed-over lectures. Video has some real strengths when it comes to things like establishing social presence (a topic I’ve written about previously on this blog), demonstrating actions or phenomena that need to be observed visually to be fully understood, or leveraging the potential of multimedia learning to draw out and illustrate connections between concepts. Of course, making videos that do those things can be both difficult and time-consuming–and if there’s one thing that most faculty don’t have a lot of, it’s time.

So what can you do if you want to create more than a voiceover of your lecture slides but don’t have the time or skills needed to do so? One potential answer is video annotation. The idea is simple: take an existing video that someone else has produced and generously uploaded for public viewing and then add annotations that guide students through it, thereby connecting it to the specific topics or activities in your course. Carefully annotated, a video becomes something more than a lecture intended to convey information. Instead, at its best it functions as an exercise in modeling for students a thought process or a line of inquiry. An well-annotated video can establish a kind of dialogue between the video’s content and the larger conceptual or theoretical structures of the course or program of study. It can invite students to explore or understand a topic more deeply, and to connect that topic to others they have studied, rather than passively view and process simply for its informational content.

Video annotations can work in a number of different ways, depending on the specific tool being used to create and display them, but the general idea is to attach notes, usually in the form of text (although some tool support images and multimedia), to specific spans of time within the video. Once the annotations have been created, many annotation tools allow the viewer either to watch the full video and see the annotations displayed in a synchronized fashion as it plays or, alternatively, to jump immediately to specific portions of the video based on a selected annotation.

Some video annotation tools can also facilitate individual or group annotation by students, opening up a variety of possibilities for student projects or, potentially, for moving course discussions out of traditional threaded forums or message boards and into a world where comments are attached directly to the object of study itself.

Used thoughtfully and creatively, annotated videos provide numerous ways to move beyond the conventional video lecture in an online or hybrid course. In a companion post, coming soon, I’ll highlight a couple of free tools that you can start using right away to experiment with video annotation in your own courses. Stay tuned!

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In 2019, Try a Teaching ‘First’


Colorful graphic with the words "Happy New Year 2019"

After an extended hiatus during the second half of 2018, it’s time to dust off the ol’ CTT blog and start posting again: a new year, a new beginning, etcetera. But rather than exhort anyone who may still be reading the blog (you’re still out there, right?) to strap on your willpower and set yourself some tough resolutions for 2019, I’ll get things rolling this year with a gentler suggestion: deciding to try a teaching ‘first’ some time this year.

What’s a teaching ‘first,’ you ask? It’s pretty much exactly what it sounds like: adding to your teaching practices, just once, something that’s new to you. Unlike a resolution, which usually comes with weighty expectations of long-term persistence and forming new permanent habits, a teaching ‘first’ involves committing to nothing more than trying something new. Whatever it is, you don’t have to stick with it. Just try it, see how it goes, and then move on if you want.

I should note that I’m shamelessly borrowing this idea from a Washington Post column by Erik Orton: “New Year’s resolutions are hard to stick to. So try out New Year’s ‘firsts'”. Here’s how Orton describes it:

Just one thing, one time. Once we’ve done it, we’ve met our goal. It’s a win.

Anyone could do this. You could say, “Hey, we’ve never ordered that kind of pizza before. Let’s try it.” Call in the order. Boom. You’re done. Success. You could say, “I’ve never done a triple feature at the movies before.” Get down to the multiplex, buy tickets for three back-to-back movies and settle in. Success. Or, if you’re a little more ambitious, you could say, “I’ve always wanted to watch the sunrise.” Check online to see what time the sun comes up, get out of bed 10 minutes before that, walk outside, and face east. Stand there for 10 minutes. Success.

As Orton makes clear, the real beauty of the ‘first’ is that it can be extremely simple. Sure, you can set yourself the goal of trying something big and ambitious. You might think, for example, “I really admire how my colleague Edna hosts virtual office hours in her classes. I’m going to do that every week in all of my online classes this quarter!” But you don’t have to set goals on so large a scale (and for practical reasons, you really may not want to). You could instead say, “When classes start next week, I’m going to try at least one new technique for learning my students’ names on the first day.” Maybe you want to try using a mid-quarter feedback survey for the first time to better understand how your students perceive their progress in the course. Or maybe you want to introduce a quick active learning technique into one of your lectures, just once, to see how it goes.

If you think you’re ready to set a teaching ‘first’ for yourself in 2019, here are a few tips to consider:

  • Pick a ‘first’ that you care about. It’s easy to pick something that is, well, easy. But to make it worth the effort, it’s usually best if it’s something you find meaningful, that holds genuine interest for you, and that you’ll be able to learn from.
  • Choose a ‘first’ that makes sense for your class or teaching context. The goal of the ‘first’ is to grow and expand as a teacher, so choose one that has the potential to be constructive in your specific teaching circumstances. You know best what ‘firsts’ make the most sense for you, your students, and the course.
  • Select a ‘first’ that involves a reasonable amount of effort. It’s good to be ambitious and to develop new skills in the process of completing your goal, but choosing a ‘first’ that involves too great an effort can be counterproductive. Know what you’re comfortable with and work within that scope.
  • Reflect on what you’ve learned. This is the most important tip of all. After you’ve successfully completed your ‘first,” take some time to reflect on the experience. Even if you vow never to do it again, did your ‘first’ help you learn anything that you can be helpful to you as a teacher?

Are you up for the challenge of a teaching ‘first’ this year? Let us know in the comments what you’re hoping to do for the first time in your teaching during 2019!

Happy New Year 2019 image licensed under Creative Commons, CC-BY 4.0.

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